90/90 Hamstring Test

What is the 90/90 Hamstring Test?

The 90/90 hamstring test is used to assess the hamstrings muscles flexibility i.e tightness in the hamstrings muscle. As tightness in the hamstrings muscle means shortness in the length of the hamstrings muscle. Therefore, the 90/90 hamstring test is also known as the hamstrings length test. This test has one more name, 90-90 straight leg raise test.

Procedure For Performing 90/90 Hamstring Test

There are generally two procedures for performing this test. One is active, the patient performs by himself. Another is passive, as passive means involvement of the examiner. In this the examiner measures the range of motion with the help of a goniometer. Both the procedures are discussed in details below.

Procedure 1 (Testing Both the knees)

  • The patient should lie in a supine lying position.
  • Then ask your patient to flex both the hips into 90° of flexion and then both the knees into 90° of flexion.

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  • Then ask your patient to stabilize this position by placing the left hand behind the left knee and the right hand behind the right knee.

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  • Now ask your patient to lift up or fully extend (straighten) both the knees one by one.

Procedure 2 (Testing only one knee with the help of goniometer)

  • The patient should lie in a supine lying position.
  • Then ask your patient to flex one side hip and knee into 90° of flexion. Let us suppose that the patient flexed his left side hips and knees.
  • Then ask your patient to stabilize this position by placing both hands behind the left knee.

Placement of the Goniometer 

Now examiner will place the axis of the goniometer on the lateral epicondyle of the femur. The stationary arm of the goniometer points towards the greater trochanter and the moving arm points towards the lateral malleolus.

Remember, the axis of the goniometer should be placed and stabilized properly on the lateral epicondyle of the femur. As improper placement of the goniometer will not give u proper reading.

As the patient has stabilized his left side hips and knees into 90° flexion position by placing both of his hands behind the left knee. In this position, the patient can easily hold or stabilize the stationary arm of the goniometer. As holding or stabilizing the stationary arm of the goniometer will be very beneficial to the examiner.

  • Now, the examiner will lift up or extend the patient’s left knee, as far as the patient can lift up. Remember the examiner will not apply any force or push up the patient’s tested knee. He will only assist in lifting up the patient’s tested knee (left side) as far the patient can lift up.
  • Now, the knee angle is measured.

Results 

The 90/90 hamstrings test is considered positive when the patient is not able to extend his knees above 20 degrees. This applies in both the procedures. You should ensure that the end feel which patient is experiencing is muscle stretch. Here end feel is the quality of resistance at end range of motion. It can be hard, soft, firm etc.

End Feel StructureWhat Happens Here
HardBone Contacting BoneBone Contacting Bone is limiting ROM
SoftSoft Tissue ApproximationSubcutaneous tissues (muscle bulk, muscle fat) push against each other and limit the ROM.
Firm1 - Muscular Stretch
2 - Ligamentous Stretch
3 - Capsular Stretch
1 - The ROM is limited by muscle tightness.
2 - ROM is limited by ligament tightness
3 - The ROM is limited by Joint Capsule.

Related Post 

Empty Can Test – For assessing supraspinatus muscle and supraspinatus tendon

Drop Arm Test – For diagnosing supraspinatus tendon tear

Lachman test – For diagnosing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

Faber Test / Patrick’s Test – For diagnosing dysfunction at the hip joint, muscles around the hip joint, and at the sacroiliac joint.

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